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Eid-ul-Fitr Prayers

The prayer for eid was prescribed in the first year after the migration to Madinah. It is a sunnah mua'kkadah [recommended] as the Prophet [s] always performed these prayers and he [s] ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.

Grooming for eid :
It is preferred to take a bath [ghusl], use perfume and put on one's best attire for the festival. Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet [s] had a special cloak that he would wear on the two eids and Jumu'ah.'

Eating on the eid day :
One is to eat before going for salat al-eid al-fitr. It is sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray. Anas [ra] reports: "The Prophet [s] would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast [eid al-fitr] until he had eaten an odd number of dates." [Ahmad/ bukhari]

Going out to the musalla [place of prayer] :
Salat al-eid can be performed in the mosque but it is preferable to perform it in an open huge ground.

Women and children going out to attend eid salah :
Islamic Law [shari'ah] requires women and children to go out and attend the salat al-eid. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women. Umm 'Atiyah [ra] reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two eids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." [bukhari/muslim]

Takbirat during the eid day :
It is sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on eid day. Allah says "you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allah [i.e.,say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks." The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the eid is from the time one goes to the eid prayer until the khutbah begins. These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that which has been recorded from 'Umar and ibn Mas'ud [ra]-

Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd.

Translation :
Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. All praise belongs to Allah.

Taking different routes to and from musalla :
It is preferable [not obligatory] to go for salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation. Jabir [ra] reports: 'On the days of eid, the Prophet [s] would take different routes.' [bukhari] Bakr ibn Mubashir [ra] says: 'I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on eid al-adha and on eid al-fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Madinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley.' [abu dawud, bukhari]

The time of eid prayer :
The time for salat al-eid begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon until the sun reaches its meridian. Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana [ra] records that Jundub [ra] said: 'The Prophet prayed the eid al-fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon...'
Ash-Shaukani says: 'That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific time of salat al-eidain and the hadith shows that it is preferable to hasten in praying salat al-adha [to leave time for sacrifice] and to delay the salat al-fitr.'

The adhan and iqamah for salat al-eid :
Ibn al-Qayyim writes, 'When the Messenger of Allah [s] went to the musalla, he would perform the salah without any adhan or iqamah and without saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' [prayer in congregation]. The sunnah is not to do any of that.'

The takbir during salat al-eid :
The eid prayer consists of 2 rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir 7 times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah. During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir 5 times after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of the takbir. As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet [s] would be silent for a short period of time between the takbirat. Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.

Prayer before or after salat al-eid :
It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the eid prayer. The Prophet [s] never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the musalla

For whom the performance of salat al-eid is valid :
The eid prayer is valid for men, women, children, travelers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on. Whoever misses salat al-eid with the congregation may pray 2 rak'at. Making up a missed eid prayer In this hadith there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss salat al-eid due to some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day. Abu 'Umair ibn Anas [ra] reports, 'My Ansari uncles from among the companions of the Messenger of Allah [s] said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from us and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came and they bore witness to the Prophet [s] that they had seen the moon the previous night. The Prophet ordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of the salat al-eid on the next day.' [nasa'i/majah]

Playing, amusement, and singing on the days of eid :
Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible on the days of eid. Narrated Aisha [ra], that once Abu Bakr [ra] came to her on the day of eid al-Fitr or eid al-Adha while the Prophet [s] was with her and there were two girl singers with her, singing songs of the Ansar about the day of Buath. Abu Bakr said twice. "Musical instrument of Satan!" But the Prophet said, "Leave them Abu Bakr, for every nation has an 'Id (i.e. festival) and this day is our eid." [bukhari vol 5 book 58 h # 268]

Congratulating one another on the days of eid :
It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of eid. Jabir ibn Nafir [ra] reports: "When the companions of the Prophet [s] met each other on the day of eid, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka [May Allah] accept it from us and you.'" Ibn Hajar said that its chain is hasan.

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